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Lower Level of Kīlauea’s Summit Lava Lake Exposes Vent Wall

The summit lava lake within Halemaʻumaʻu Crater on Sunday Jan. 15, 2017 was about 50.5 m (166 ft) below the crater floor (vent rim). One of the most interesting things exposed by the lower lake level was the clear view of the thick, dark veneer of lava on the eastern vent wall (close-up shown below). This veneer formed when the lava lake level was high; lava next to the vent wall cooled and solidified, leaving “bathtub rings” as the lake level rose and fell.

HVO and Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park’s Jaggar Museum, perched on the rim of Kīlauea’s summit caldera, are visible in the upper left corner of the photo. (Click to Enlarge)

The black rock on the crater floor around the vent was created when the lava lake rose to the point of overflowing in April-May 2015 and October 2016.

Telephoto image of the lava veneer on the 50.5 m (166 ft) tall eastern vent wall; the lava lake surface is visible at lower left. The solidified lava coating the vent wall is quite thick. Parts of it have bathtub rings, but much of it is composed of lumpy protuberances that might have been small ledges at the lake margin or ramparts that formed around spattering sources.

If the lake level remains low, sections of this veneer will likely peel away from the vent wall and collapse into the lava lake.

In places, the dark-colored veneer of lava, or bathtub rings, have already collapsed into the lava lake, exposing older, light- or rusty-colored rocks in the vent wall. The lava lake surface is visible in the foreground.

The distance from the vent rim to the lake surface is 50.5 m (166 ft).

VIDEO: Rockfall Triggers an Explosive Event in Summit Lava Lake

Video clip captured by HVO webcam on Monday, November 28, 2016 at 11:59 a.m. shows a rockfall from the south wall of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater triggering a small explosive event in the summit lava lake.

The explosion threw spatter (fragments of molten lava) onto the rim of the crater, mostly to the west of the former visitor overlook.

hvo-112816

This area has been closed to the public since 2008 due to ongoing volcanic hazards, including explosive events like the one that happened today.

Halemaʻumaʻu Lava Lake Exceptionally High

Kīlauea’s summit lava lake rose to within about 5 m (16 ft) of the floor of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater yesterday morning, before dropping back down slightly with the onset of spattering.

hvo-911This view, taken from the east edge of Halemaʻumaʻu, shows spattering at the south corner of the lava lake.

Zoomed in view of the spattering at the south edge of the lava lake.

hvo-911aNote the black high-lava mark from this morning on the wall just behind the spattering.

Summit inflation switched to deflation late yesterday afternoon. Deflation continued overnight and stopped this morning. The summit lava lake level, generally tracking the deflation, dropped to about 20 m (66 ft) below the floor of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater by this morning. It is likely that the summit will begin to inflate, and the lava lake will begin to rise again, sometime today. Webcam views of the lava lake can be found at the following webpage: http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/cams/region_kism.php.

hvo-911c

Click to enlarge and see time and date picture was taken.

Kilauea’s Lava Lake at High Level

On Wednesday evening (September 7), the lava lake at Kīlauea’s summit reached a high level, about 8 m (26 feet) below the floor of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater. This panorama shows the former Halemaʻumaʻu Overlook (closed since 2008 due to volcanic hazards) at the far left.

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Jaggar Museum, visible on the skyline in the upper right part of the photo, is a popular destination in Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park for viewing the lava lake activity and spattering lake surface.

A closer look at Kīlauea's summit lava lake on Wednesday evening, around 6:30 p.m., when the lake was just 8 meters (26 feet) below the floor of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater.

A closer look at Kīlauea’s summit lava lake on Wednesday evening, around 6:30 p.m., when the lake was just 8 meters (26 feet) below the floor of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater.

Several Small Collapses as Summit Lava Lake Slowly Drops

Summit deflation over the past day was associated with the summit lava lake level slowly dropping.

Solidified lava, attached to the Overlook crater walls, collapsed into the lake on several occasions today, triggering small dust plumes and agitation of the lake surface.

Solidified lava, attached to the Overlook crater walls, collapsed into the lake on several occasions today, triggering small dust plumes and agitation of the lake surface.

When this happens, collapses commonly occur within the Overlook crater.

“Summit deflation continued over the past day, with the lava lake level slowly dropping. The dropping lava level triggered several small collapses within the Overlook crater. These small rockfalls impacted the lake and caused brief spattering and agitation of the lake surface. This morning, the lake was roughly 80 meters (260 ft) below the Overlook crater rim. Summit sulfur dioxide emission rates ranged from 1,500 to 4,300 metric tons per day during the 2-week period ending September 30.”

Lava Lake at Halemaumau Crater Continues to Drop

Kīlauea Volcano’s summit lava lake continued to drop today (May 15, 2015).

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Measurements of the lake surface late this afternoon showed that it was 62 m (203 ft) below the top of the newly-created vent rim, a ridge (or levee) of solidified lava about 8 m (26 ft) thick that accumulated on top of the Halemaʻumaʻu Crater floor from multiple overflows of the vent during the past two weeks.

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Webcam Captures “Bathtub Ring” Falling Into Lava Lake

This sequence of HVO webcam images of Kīlauea Volcano’s summit vent, recorded between 1:28 and 1:32 p.m., HST, on May 12, 2015, captures the moment a section of the dark-colored “bathtub ring” (a veneer of fresh lava that coats the vent wall as the lava lake level drops) fell into the lava lake (center).

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

The lava veneer collapse, which produced a visible cloud of rock and lava fragments, agitated the lava lake surface and exposed lighter-colored layers of older rock in the vent wall (right).

Lava Lake in Halemaumau Crater Drops

The summit lava lake in Halemaʻumaʻu Crater has dropped significantly over the past two days, as Kīlauea’s summit has deflated.

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

The dropping lava level has allowed lava veneer on the walls of the Overlook crater to fall away, clearly exposing the contact between the original rim of the Overlook crater (which is the original, pre-overflow floor of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater) and the stack of recent lava overflows. These overflows are roughly 8 meters (26 feet) thick in total.

Lava Breakouts Remain Active – Lava Lake Remains High

The June 27th lava flow remains active, with breakouts focused in several areas northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō.

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

The farthest downslope activity observed on today’s overflight was roughly 8 km (5 miles) northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō.

This photograph shows one of the active breakouts closer to Puʻu ʻŌʻō.  (Click to enlarge)

This photograph shows one of the active breakouts closer to Puʻu ʻŌʻō. (Click to enlarge)

One of several lobes on the June 27th flow that was at the forest boundary today, burning vegetation northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō.

Summit lava lake in Halemaʻumaʻu Crater remains at high level

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Over the past week, the summit lava lake in the Overlook crater rose and spilled out onto the floor of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater, creating the dark flows in the south part of Halemaʻumaʻu (left side of crater from this direction). The extent of the lake itself, set within the Overlook crater, is slightly difficult to distinguish from this view but the spattering at the lake margin is visible. The overflows onto the Halemaʻumaʻu Crater floor, not counting the area of the lake itself, total about 11 hectares (28 acres).

A closer look at the lava lake and overflows on the floor of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater.

hvo147The outline of the Overlook crater, and the active lake, is easier to distinguish in this view.

From this angle, the extent of the lava lake within the Overlook crater is much easier to distinguish from the surrounding overflows.

hvo148

The closed Halemaʻumaʻu parking lot is in the right side of the photograph.

Lava Lake Overflows Vent Rim

Photo from the rim of Halemaʻumaʻu showing the lava lake in the completely filled Overlook crater. Repeated overflows are beginning to construct levees around the lake, such that the level of the lake is now perched about 2 m (7 ft) above the original floor of Halemaʻumaʻu.

Kīlauea Volcano’s summit lava lake, which was about 12 m (40 ft) below the vent rim on April 25 (left), overflowed the vent rim for the first time at about 9:40 p.m., HST, on April 28. As of noon on April 29 (right), the lava lake had overflowed the vent rim several more times. These Webcam images capture the summit vent before and after the overflows. (Click to enlarge)

Kīlauea Volcano’s summit lava lake, which was about 12 m (40 ft) below the vent rim on April 25, overflowed the vent rim for the first time at about 9:40 p.m., HST, on April 28. As of noon on April 29, the lava lake had overflowed the vent rim several more times. (Click to enlarge)

Rise in Lava Lake Creates Surge in Visitation at Volcanoes National Park

Thousands of additional visitors are flocking to Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park to witness the large lava lake steadily rise at the summit of Kīlauea volcano. lava Lake 427

Over the last several days, visitors waited up to 30 minutes or longer to park. To ease traffic once the Jaggar Museum and Kīlauea Overlook parking lots fill up, rangers are currently redirecting vehicles during peak visitation hours to park at the Kīlauea Military Camp ball field. From there, visitors can hike one mile to the Jaggar Museum observation deck, the closest and best vantage point to view the spectacular lava lake.

“Visitors should come prepared to ensure a safe and enjoyable park experience,” said Superintendent Cindy Orlando. “We encourage people to avoid peak hours, and arrive after 10 p.m. and before 4 a.m. if possible, or they will likely wait in line for parking. The park remains open 24 hours a day,” she said.

Tips for an optimal viewing experience:

  • Be prepared to hike one mile each way between Kīlauea Military Camp ball field and the Jaggar Museum observation deck on Crater Rim Trail. Wear sturdy closed-toe shoes, bring rain gear, water, binoculars, a flashlight, and extra batteries.  ​
  • Carpool if possible to reduce the number of vehicles in the parking areas.
  • As a courtesy to other visitors, no “tailgating” in the Jaggar Museum or Kīlauea Overlook parking lots. Choose another picnic location so others have a chance to view the eruption.
  • To observe viewing and weather conditions, monitor the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory webcams. The KI camera provides a panoramic view of Halema‘uma‘u Crater from HVO.
  • High levels of dangerous sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas and volcanic ash can be blown over Jaggar Museum by southerly winds. These gases are a danger to everyone, particularly to people with heart or respiratory problems, young children and pregnant women. Kīlauea Visitor Center offers updates on air quality 24 hours a day, and visitors can monitor the Hawaii SO2 network website.

In addition, the public is reminded that park entrance fees apply and that the use of unmanned aircraft (drones) is prohibited in all national parks.

 

Lava Lake Within 10 Feet of Floor of Halema’uma’u Crater

This photo shows the lava lake in the Overlook crater this morning, when it reached to within 3 m (10 ft) of the floor of Halemaʻumaʻu. This is the highest the lava lake has reached during the current summit eruption.

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

This is a view of spattering at the east corner of the lava lake this morning.

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Lava Lake Rises Close to Surface

This photo, taken yesterday mid-day, shows the lava lake as seen from the west side of Halemaʻumaʻu, which offers a different perspective.

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

The lava lake was about 10 m (33 ft) below the floor of Halemaʻumaʻu at this time.

This grainy evening photo shows the lake at 6:30 PM, when it was a mere 7 m (23 ft) below the Halemaʻumaʻu Crater floor.

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Lava Breakouts Continue – Lava Lake in Halemaʻumaʻu Crater Reaches New High Level

Breakouts on the June 27th lava flow remain active northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō. A new, small, breakout appeared recently from the tube adjacent to Puʻu Kahaualeʻa, the small forested cone near the center of the photograph.

Puʻu ʻŌʻō is in the upper right portion of the photo.

Puʻu ʻŌʻō is in the upper right portion of the photo.

The new breakout is the light-colored curved flow in the left portion of the photograph.

The farthest active breakout on the June 27th flow reached about 8 km (5 miles) northeast of the vent on Puʻu ʻŌʻō.

Puʻu ʻŌʻō is at the top of the photograph.

Puʻu ʻŌʻō is at the top of the photograph.

The tip of this breakout was narrow and burning forest.

A small breakout from an inflated portion of the June 27th flow. Large gas bubbles reach the surface near the source of the breakout, and are then carried and deformed as the surface advances and cools.

A small breakout from an inflated portion of the June 27th flow. Large gas bubbles reach the surface near the source of the breakout, and are then carried and deformed as the surface advances and cools.

The June 27th flow covers much of the top of the photograph, and recent expansion of the flow margins has sent lava cascading into one of the ponds on the 2007 perched lava channel.

This 2007 lava fills the bottom of the photograph, and is covered with yellow alteration.

This 2007 lava fills the bottom of the photograph, and is covered with yellow alteration.

Over the past week small flows have filled the bottom of Puʻu ʻŌʻō Crater.

This 2007 lava fills the bottom of the photograph, and is covered with yellow alteration.

These flows originated from vents in the south portion of the crater, and one of the flows can be seen near the center of the photograph.

hvo141The Overlook crater lava lake, within Halemaʻumaʻu Crater at Kīlauea’s summit, has been rising over the past few days, and today reached the highest point yet measured for the current summit eruption.

The lava lake this afternoon was 20 meters (66 feet) below the Overlook crater rim.

 Another view of the lava lake, with several areas of spattering active.

Another view of the lava lake, with several areas of spattering active.

The lava level was high enough at the lava lake this evening that bits of spatter were reaching the rim of the Overlook crater.

hvo143

 

Lava Flow Reaches Forest Boundary – Lava Lake Activity Continues

The June 27 flow continues to advance at a brisk rate, and has reached the forest boundary over the past week.

HVO94

Click to enlarge

On Wednesday’s overflight, thick plumes of smoke from burning vegetation partially obscured the flow front.  See the “maps” link above for Wednesday’s flow field map.

A wider view of the flow front, looking east. The June 27 flow is the lighter-colored lava passing through the center of the photograph.  Click to Enlarge

A wider view of the flow front, looking east. The June 27 flow is the lighter-colored lava passing through the center of the photograph. Click to Enlarge

The usual lava lake activity continues in Halemaʻumaʻu Crater with no major changes related to the recent hurricane.

Hvo96

Click to Enlarge

Yesterday the lake surface was about 40 meters (130 ft) below the floor of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater, which has been typical over the past several weeks. Lake surface migration was from north to south (top of photo to bottom), and occasional gas bubbles were bursting through the crust.

Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Update – Kilauea Slowly Moving/Lava Lake in Halemaʻumaʻu Crater Remains Active

Kahaualeʻa 2 flow slowly moving through forest northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō

The Kahaualeʻa 2 flow continues to slowly move through the forest northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō. Yesterday, the active flow front was 6.3 km (3.9 miles) northeast of the vent on Puʻu ʻŌʻō.

HVO45

Puʻu ʻŌʻō is just left of the center of the photograph in the distance, partially obscured by the smoke.

A closer view of the active flows at the forest boundary, and the numerous plumes of smoke resulting from active lava igniting ʻōhiʻa trees and other vegetation.

Click to Enlarge

Click to Enlarge

This thermal image, taken from the helicopter on today’s overflight, shows the area of active pāhoehoe near the flow front of the Kahaualeʻa 2 flow, northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō. Blue and purple areas show warm but inactive areas of the flow, while the white and yellow areas are actively flowing lava. The flow surface consists of numerous scattered pāhoehoe lobes, and the advancement of the flow as a whole results from the combined, incremental movement of these individual lobes.

The black (cold) area at the top of the image is forest.  Click to Enlarge

The black (cold) area at the top of the image is forest. Click to Enlarge

Lava lake in Halemaʻumaʻu Crater remains active

The summit lava lake is contained within the Overlook crater, which is about 160 m (520 ft) by 210 m (690 ft) in size, and set within the larger Halemaʻumaʻu Crater.

 The lava lake this week has been about 50 m (160 ft) below the rim of the Overlook crater. Click to Enlarge

The lava lake this week has been about 50 m (160 ft) below the rim of the Overlook crater. Click to Enlarge

A closer look at the summit lava lake.

Click to Enlarge

Click to Enlarge

Hawaii Volcano Observatory Update – Thermal Image Sequence of Lava Lake in Halemaʻumaʻu Crater

This thermal image sequence shows the typical motion of the lava lake in Halemaʻumaʻu Crater.

Thermal image sequence of summit lava lake motion... Click Picture to view the sequence.

Thermal image sequence of summit lava lake motion… Click Picture to view the sequence.

For scale, the lake is about 160 meters (520 feet) wide in this view. The clip spans about 12 minutes, and is shown at 30x speed. The lava upwells along the north margin of the lava lake (in this view, near the top of the image). The crust slowly migrates towards the south, where it sinks back into the magmatic system along the south and southeast margins of the lake (bottom of image). The surface moves at roughly 0.5 meters per second, or about 1 mile per hour. The lake surface consists of numerous thin plates of crust, separated by hot cracks. As the lake surface migrates, these plates split, merge and change shape.

 

HVO Update – Kilauea Ocean Entry Near Kupapaʻu Point Hangs On – Lava Lake in Halemaʻumaʻu at Relatively High Level

The ocean entry east of the National Park boundary near Kupapaʻu Point remains weak, with a wispy plume, as seen in this photo looking southwest along the coast.

hvo

Photos from Hawaii Volcanoes Observatory

The main entry point of the Kupapaʻu ocean entry comprises a few small streams of lava, seen here cascading into the water.

HVO

The Kahaualeʻa 2 flow continues to invade the forest line north of Puʻu ʻŌʻō.

HVO

Poor weather prevented good views but made for an eerie scene.

The lava lake in Halemaʻumaʻu was 35 m (115 ft) below the floor of the crater yesterday morning.

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The lake is about 220 m (720 ft) long and 160 m (525 ft) wide.

A thin gas plume permitted a decent view of the south wall of the pit holding the lava lake in Halemaʻumaʻu.  Yesterday the lava lake was not spattering at its usual point near the left side of the lake in this view.

This wall is overhung by up to 15 m.

This wall is overhung by up to 15 m.

Instead, the lava lake was spattering at points on the west and northwest side of the lake. If the lake continues to rise, pieces of this overhang may collapse (note the cracks at lower right marking planes of weakness).

This photo shows the spattering on the lake's northwest side. The pit wall to the right overhangs the lake by about 10 m (33 ft)

This photo shows the spattering on the lake’s northwest side. The pit wall to the right overhangs the lake by about 10 m (33 ft)

 

Halema‘uma‘u Eruption Reaches Five-Year Anniversary

Kīlauea Volcano’s summit eruption within Halema‘uma‘u Crater marks its fifth year of continuous activity on Tues., Mar. 19.

Park Ranger Dean Gallagher engages visitors with a “Life on the Edge” talk, held daily at the Jaggar Museum Overlook in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. NPS Photo

Park Ranger Dean Gallagher engages visitors with a “Life on the Edge” talk, held daily at the Jaggar Museum Overlook in Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park. NPS Photo

To commemorate this anniversary, rangers at Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park will offer additional “Life on the Edge” talks at the Jaggar Museum observation deck, which overlooks the fuming, enlarging summit vent. The 20-minute talks, offered on Mar. 19 at 10 a.m., 11 a.m., noon, 2 p.m., 3:30 p.m. and 5 p.m., encompass the dramatic geological and mythological history of Halema‘uma‘u Crater.

Kīlauea’s summit vent opened at 2:58 a.m., HST, on Mar. 19, 2008, when an explosive eruption created a gaping hole about 115 feet wide on the south wall of Halema‘uma‘u Crater.  Nighttime glow from this hole suggested the presence of molten lava, but it wasn’t until six months later that a lake of roiling lava deep within the vent was definitively observed by U.S. Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) scientists.

With the opening of the Halema‘uma‘u vent, already-high summit sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas emission rates increased even more, resulting in increased vog (volcanic air pollution) downwind.  Although the summit SO2 emissions have declined since 2008, they are still averaging 800-1200 tonnes/day, creating hazardous conditions along closed sections of the park’s Crater Rim Drive and poor air quality farther downwind of the vent.

Since 2008, rock collapses within the vent have enlarged its opening on the floor of Halema‘uma‘u Crater.  The vent is now about 520 feet by 700 feet (the area of about 21 Olympic-sized pools), and, according to HVO Scientist-in-Charge Jim Kauahikaua, is likely to continue growing through further collapses of overhung sections of the vent rim.

Halemaumau then and now1

Kīlauea Volcano’s summit vent  “then and now.”  In April 2008, a month after it opened, the vent within Halema‘uma‘u Crater was about 115 feet in diameter.  As of March 2013, it is more than 500 feet across. USGS photos.

Halemaumau then and now2

Kauahikaua describes the lava within the vent as a continuously circulating gas-rich “foam” that rises and falls depending on changes in Kīlauea’s subsurface magma pressure.  The lava lake reached its highest level to date on Oct. 26, 2012, when the lava surface rose to within 72 feet of the vent rim.

While the actual lava lake is not visible from safe viewing areas, its glow—the diffusion of incandescent lava light within the gas plume rising from the vent—is spectacular and easily observed from Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park overlooks on clear nights.  When the lava lake level is especially high, park visitors can sometimes hear sharp sounds as rocks in the vent wall expand and crack due to the increased heat.

“The amazing beauty of this eruption, and the ease of viewing opportunities within Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park, provides both visitors and residents with unforgettable experiences,” said Park Superintendent Cindy Orlando. “Where else in the world can you park your car, and walk just a few feet to behold the spectacle of one of the world’s most active volcanoes?”

Jaggar Museum and the overlook are wheelchair- and stroller-accessible. Other vantage points for viewing Halema‘uma‘u within the park include Kīlauea Overlook, Kīlauea Iki Overlook, and Keanakako‘i Overlook.

The summit eruption, Kīlauea’s second longest since the early 1900s, can also be experienced through photos, videos, and webcam images posted on HVO’s website (http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov).  A USGS Fact Sheet about this ongoing eruption is currently in press, and will be available online in the coming months.

 

This Week’s Hawaii Volcano Observatory Report

This Week’s Hawaii Volcano Observatory Report, for February 25, 2013:

Lava lake in Halemaʻumaʻu Overlook pit

Lava Lake 1

The lava lake in Halemaʻumaʻu remains poised at a relatively high level within the Overlook pit. The lake level dropped over the weekend. Though rising again now, it has not yet reached last week’s level.

Recently emplaced flows on Puʻu ʻŌʻō’s spillway

Top:  The “spillway”—Puʻu ʻŌʻō’s eastern flank—has been buried by flows fed mostly from a spatter cone on the northeastern side of the crater floor. Most of the dark-colored lava in the foreground is new lava that has resurfaced the spillway. The fume to the left is the trace of the Peace Day tube, newly covered by crater overflows, currently carrying lava to the coast. The tube carrying lava to the northeast is not obvious, but extends toward the lower right side of the photo. Bottom: Some of the recent overflows at Puʻu ʻŌʻō traveled to the southeast. This photo shows those overflows, which comprise several dark-colored channelized flows.

Spatter cone on northwest side of Puʻu ʻŌʻō’s crater floor

Top: There are currently four spatter cones on the floor of the Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater that have been the source of lava flows over the past several months. The one shown here is on the northwest side of the crater floor, close to the multiframe webcam shown on our website. The webcam, and an HVO geologist standing next to it, give a sense of scale for the spatter cone. The camera to the right of the person is the thermal camera on Puʻu ʻŌʻō shown on our website. Bottom: This is a closer look at the spatter cone on the northwest side of Puʻu ʻŌʻō’s crater floor. The photo was taken from near the site of the webcam on the north rim of Puʻu ʻŌʻō.

Spatter cone on northeast side of Puʻu ʻŌʻō’s crater floor

Top: This is another of the spatter cones on the floor of Puʻu ʻŌʻō. This one, on the northeast side of the crater floor, has long had an open top with a view of a small lava lake. Most of the overflows from Puʻu ʻŌʻō in the last few weeks have been fed from this spatter cone, successively piling up until the top of the spatter cone is now about level with the webcam on the north rim of Puʻu ʻŌʻō.  Bottom: This is a steep aerial view of the small lava pond at the top of the spatter cone on the northeastern side of the crater floor. Lava in the pond flows directly into a lava tube which is supplying the active flow northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō. The head of the tube, marked by fume, extends from the pond toward the left side of the photo.

Views of the Kahaualeʻa flow, northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō

Top: The flow traveling north from Puʻu ʻŌʻō, which we are informally calling the Kahaualeʻa flow, abuts the edge of episode 58 flows erupted during 2007–2008. The flow has also partially surrounded one of the few vestiges of greenery within the flow field—the forested top of the old Kahaualeʻa cone. Bottom: This is a view of the front of the Kahaualeʻa flow looking back toward Puʻu ʻŌʻō, where the flow originates.

Ocean entry near Kupapaʻu Point

Lava continues to enter the ocean near Kupapaʻu Point, with an entry point just inside the National Park (near left side of photo) and entry points just east of the Park boundary (near the center of the photo). Widely scattered patches of surface lava are also active inland from the ocean entry points. Puʻu ʻŌʻō is a low lump on the horizon near the top of the photo immediately to the right of the image’s center line. The plume from the lava lake in Halemaʻumaʻu is visible in the background to the left of the image’s center line.