As Lava Meets the Ocean, New Dangers Persist

The 61G lava flow extending southeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō towards the coastal plain on Kīlauea’s south flank remains active. The 61G lava flow extending southeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō entered the ocean, as of as of 1:12 a.m. HST, last night. Areas of incandescence remain visible in overnight webcam views of the active lava flow field, marking lava tube skylights and areas of active lava on the pali and along the flow as it extends towards the coast.

Last night Senator Kahele walked out to the flow.

Last night Senator Kahele walked out to the flow.  That would make “Lava Meets Kai” a reality… LOL!

As a strong caution to visitors viewing the new ocean entry (location where lava meets the sea) for Flow 61G, there are additional significant hazards besides walking on uneven surfaces and around unstable, extremely steep sea cliffs. Venturing too close to an ocean entry exposes you to flying debris created by the explosive interaction between lava and water.

Also, the new land created is unstable because it is built on unconsolidated lava fragments and sand. This loose material can easily be eroded away by surf causing the new land to become unsupported and slide into the sea. Finally, the interaction of lava with the ocean creates an acidic plume laden with fine volcanic particles that can irritate the skin, eyes, and lungs.

Lava Flow Crosses Emergency Road and Flows Into Ocean

Flow 61G reached the emergency access road inside Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park on July 25 at 3:20 pm and crossed the road in about 30 minutes. At 4:00 pm, the flow front was approximately 110 m (0.07 miles) from the ocean.

hvo 726aThe active lava flow on Kīlauea Volcano’s south flank crossed the emergency access road in Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park this afternoon around 3:20 p.m., HST, providing wonderful lava-viewing experiences for Park visitors.

. A section of the road can be seen here, with fume from the active lava tube in the far distance behind it, and the active flow front in the foreground.

A section of the road can be seen here, with fume from the active lava tube in the far distance behind it, and the active flow front in the foreground.

The flow front continued to advance, and was less than 100 meters (yards) from the ocean a few hours later (when this photo was taken).

The lava flow reached the ocean about 01:15 a.m. on  July 26.

The lava flow reached the ocean about 01:15 a.m. on July 26.

Lava Now 0.2 Miles from Ocean

Activity Summary: Eruptive activity continues at Kīlauea Volcano’s summit and East Rift Zone. The 61G lava flow extending southeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō towards the ocean remains active but poses no threat to nearby communities. As of yesterday, the flow tip was about ~370 m (0.2 miles) from the ocean. The lava lake at Halemaʻumaʻu Crater continues to circulate and intermittently spatter. Seismicity and deformation rates throughout the volcano remain at background levels.
hvo 725 g61
Summit Observations: The lava lake within the Halemaʻumaʻu Overlook crater remains active. The depth to the lake was estimated at 26 m (85 ft) below the crater rim, measured on Sunday. Tiltmeters at Kīlauea’s summit recorded a slight inflationary tilt. Seismicity is within normal, background rates with tremor fluctuations associated with lava lake spattering. The summit sulfur dioxide emission rate ranged from 3,700 to 7,300 metric tons/day.

Puʻu ʻŌʻō Observations: Webcam images over the past 24 hours show persistent glow at long-term sources within the crater. There were no significant changes in seismicity over the past 24 hours. The tilt still recovering due to heavy rainfall over the weekend. The sulfur dioxide emission rate from all East Rift Zone vents on July 22 was about 500 metric tons/day.

Lava Flow Observations: The 61G lava flow extending southeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō towards the coastal plain on Kīlauea’s south flank remains active. On Sunday, the flow tip was active and breakouts were active within a few hundred meters (yards) upslope. The flow was approximately ~240 m (0.15 miles) from the coastal emergency road and 370 m (0.2 miles) from the ocean; based on National Park personnel observations. Areas of incandescence remain visible in overnight webcam views of the active lava flow field, marking lava tube skylights and areas of active lava on the pali and along the flow as it extends towards the coast.

Hawaii Electric Light Restores Power to 900 Customers After Tropical Storm Darby

Overnight, Hawaii Electric Light restored electric service to 900 customers in various parts of Hamakua, upper Puna, and Kona that were impacted by high winds from Tropical Storm Darby. About 100 customers in Hawaiian Paradise Park, Leilani Estates, Kapoho, Orchidland Estates, Honokaa, and Kailua-Kona remain without power.

 Hawaii Electric Light crews work to restore electric service in Hawaiian Paradise Park.


Hawaii Electric Light crews work to restore electric service in Hawaiian Paradise Park.

Crews worked through the night to repair damage to utility poles and power lines that was caused primarily by fallen trees, tree branches, and tree bark contacting power lines.

“Many of our employees have been working around the clock since Friday to prepare for the storm and to then safely restore electric service as quickly as possible,” said Rhea Lee-Moku, public information officer. “We know how difficult it is to be without electricity for a long period of time, and we thank our customers for their patience and understanding.”

Hawaii Electric Light expects to restore service to the remaining 100 customers tonight. However, it cautions that although the eye of the storm has passed over Hawaii Island, the weather forecast reports thunderstorms and heavy rain approaching the east side of the island. Lightning and moisture-soaked trees can make work conditions unsafe for crews. This may delay restoration efforts in areas impacted by the thunderstorms. Crews will continue to work to restore power to customers unless weather conditions become hazardous and unsafe.

The company also reminds the community that high winds and heavy rains may have partially-uprooted trees and cracked tree branches that can easily topple or break. Do not approach or touch a downed line as it can be energized and dangerous.

To report an outage, a low-hanging or downed power line, please call 969-6666. Hawaii Electric Light continues to proactively post outage notifications, including power restoration updates, on its Twitter account @HIElectricLight with the hashtag #BigIslandOutage.

New Thermal Image Map Shows Where Lava is Active

This image shows a thermal map of the flow on the pali and coastal plain, created from airborne thermal images. White pixels are hot, and show areas of active surface breakouts. The background image is a satellite image collected before the current lava flow was active.

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

The thermal map shows minimal activity on the upper pali, with a channelized ʻaʻā flow at the base of the pali. The flow front area had scattered pāhoehoe breakouts, with a narrow lobe of active lava forming the leading tip of the flow. The leading tip of the flow was 730 m (0.45 miles) from the ocean.

Sluggish Lava Breakouts Advance Slowly on Coastal Plain

The flow front remains active and consists of slowly advancing pāhoehoe. There are scattered breakouts along the margins of the flow on the coastal plain and base of the pali.

hvo 723a

During the overflight yesterday, the flow front was 730 m (0.45 miles) from the ocean.

A faint double rainbow provided a beautiful backdrop for sluggish pāhoehoe lava oozing out from near the flow front this morning.  Pictures were taken as part of a site visit to the G61 flow front on July 22, 2016.   The flow was about 615m from the road and 760 m from the ocean. (Click to enlarge)

A faint double rainbow provided a beautiful backdrop for sluggish pāhoehoe lava oozing out from near the flow front this morning. Pictures were taken as part of a site visit to the G61 flow front on July 22, 2016.
The flow was about 615m from the road and 760 m from the ocean. (Click to enlarge)

During early morning field observations, a large breakout of lava near the base of Pūlama Pali (steep fault scarp in background) was visible through fumes from the lava tube and heat shimmer from lava on the coastal plain.

The approximate location of the lava tube feeding Kīlauea's active lava flow is visible as degassing sources (white fume) on the pali. (Click to enlarge)

The approximate location of the lava tube feeding Kīlauea’s active lava flow is visible as degassing sources (white fume) on the pali. (Click to enlarge)

A breakout at the base of the pali viewed by a field crew this morning has formed a channelized ʻaʻā flow on the steeper portion of the coastal plain.

hvo 723d

A close up view of the ʻaʻā channel.

hvo 723e

Big Island Police Identify Man Killed in Police Shooting

The man who died Thursday afternoon following an officer-involved shooting has been identified as 36-year-old BJ Medeiros of Keaʻau.

An autopsy conducted Friday determined that he died from a gunshot wound to his torso.

In response to a 1:20 p.m. call Thursday reporting a man possibly armed with a weapon, Puna District officers combed the Hawaiian Paradise Park subdivision and located him on Beach Road off Kaloli Drive seated in a pickup truck.
Kaloli Beach
Two officers approached the vehicle. They made contact with the man and a struggle ensued. During the struggle, the man in the truck pointed a handgun at one of the officers. In response, that officer fired his duty weapon, fatally injuring the gunman.

The officer who fired his weapon has been with the Hawaiʻi Police Department for nine years. The other officer, who has five years’ experience, was taken to Hilo Medical Center, where he was treated for minor injuries and then released.

No officers were injured by gunfire.

As is standard practice in any police-involved shooting, the Police Department’s Area I Criminal Investigations Section is conducting a criminal investigation into the shooting and the Office of Professional Standards is conducting an administrative investigation.

Police ask anyone who witnessed the incident to contact Detective Tuckloy Aurello at 961-2385.

Tipsters who prefer to remain anonymous may call the island wide Crime Stoppers number at 961-8300 and may be eligible for a reward of up to $1,000. Crime Stoppers is a volunteer program run by ordinary citizens who want to keep their community safe. Crime Stoppers doesn’t record calls or subscribe to caller ID. All Crime Stoppers information is kept confidential.

Big Island Police Fatally Shoot Man in Hawaiian Paradise Park

Hawaiʻi Island police are investigating an officer-involved shooting Thursday afternoon (July 21) in the Hawaiian Paradise Park subdivision.

Kaloli Beach

In response to a 1:20 p.m. call reporting a man possibly armed with a weapon, Puna District officers combed the subdivision and located him on Beach Road off Kaloli Drive seated in a pickup truck.

Two officers approached the vehicle. They made contact with the man and a struggle ensued. During the struggle, the man in the truck pointed a handgun at one of the officers. In response, that officer fired his duty weapon, fatally injuring the gunman. The man’s name is being withheld pending positive identification and notification of his family.

An autopsy will be ordered to determine the exact cause of death.

The officer who fired his weapon has been with the Hawaiʻi Police Department for nine years. The other officer, who has five years’ experience, was taken to Hilo Medical Center for treatment of minor injuries.

No officers were injured by gunfire.

As is standard practice in any police-involved shooting, the Police Department’s Area I Criminal Investigations Section will conduct a criminal investigation into the shooting and the Office of Professional Standards will conduct an administrative investigation.

Police ask anyone who witnessed the incident to contact Detective Tuckloy Aurello at 961-2385.

Tipsters who prefer to remain anonymous may call the island wide Crime Stoppers number at 961-8300 and may be eligible for a reward of up to $1,000. Crime Stoppers is a volunteer program run by ordinary citizens who want to keep their community safe. Crime Stoppers doesn’t record calls or subscribe to caller ID. All Crime Stoppers information is kept confidential.

Lava Flow Front Remains Active on Coastal Plain, But Little Forward Movement

The flow remains active on the pali and coastal plain, with scattered breakouts of pāhoehoe lava. Over the past week, however, the leading tip of the flow has advanced only a short distance. Today, the flow front was 850 m (0.5 miles) from the ocean.

In this photograph, the current lava flow is the lighter color area in the center of the photo.

In this photograph, the current lava flow is the lighter color area in the center of the photo.

Only a few short sections of road in Royal Gardens subdivision remain uncovered by lava.

In this kipuka, about 200 m (220 yards) of Orchid Street is still exposed.

In this kipuka, about 200 m (220 yards) of Orchid Street is still exposed.

This photograph looks downslope at the uppermost section of the Episode 61g flow.

The vent is in the lower left corner of the photo. Several collapses have occurred over the lava tube, and the trace of the tube can be seen by the fuming sources extending downslope.

The vent is in the lower left corner of the photo. Several collapses have occurred over the lava tube, and the trace of the tube can be seen by the fuming sources extending downslope.

The large hole on the northeast flank of Puʻu ʻŌʻō remains open, providing a view of forked lava streams.

Since the last overflight on Friday, July 15, the lava streams have started to crust over, reducing the glow in the pit.

Since the last overflight on Friday, July 15, the lava streams have started to crust over, reducing the glow in the pit.

Puna Man Arrested After Threatening to Shoot Everyone at Community Meeting

A Puna man was arrested Tuesday (July 19) after he reportedly called a community association employee’s home [corrected location], threatening to take a shotgun to a future meeting and shoot everyone present.

James Brent Jones

James Brent Jones

Approximately an hour after the incident was reported, officers successfully located the suspect after his vehicle was spotted parked off Highway 11 near the 20-mile marker. At 12:35 p.m. officer contacted and arrested the suspect, identified as 56-year old James Brent Jones of Glenwood.

Jones was charged later Tuesday with second-degree terroristic threatening. His bail was set at $2,000. After posting bail, Jones was released from custody pending his initial court appearance scheduled for August 25.

Lava Flow Remains Active – Now 0.4 Miles From Emergency Road

The flow front remains active on the coastal plain, but has only moved about 60 m (~200 ft) closer to the ocean in the past three days.

hvo 71516

As of midday on July 15, the slow-moving pahoehoe is roughly 870 m (~0.5 mi) from the ocean. Activity upslope continues to widen the flow margins. The light gray surface in this image is the new pahoehoe of the 61G flow.

Aerial view of the Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park Coastal Ranger Station at the end of Chain of Craters Road with the active lava flow (61G) in the distance.

Correlative thermal image highlighting the hot, active flow at the top portion of the photo (right).

Correlative thermal image highlighting the hot, active flow at the top portion of the photo (right).

This map is a georeferenced thermal image mosaic showing the distribution of active and recently active breakouts on the Pūlama pali and coastal plain. The thermal images were collected during a helicopter overflight on July 15. The episode 61g flow field as mapped on July 8 is outlined in yellow to show how the flow has changed. Most surface flow activity is on the coastal plain, but breakouts also continue on pali.

The leading tip of the active flow was 870 m (about half a mile) from the ocean.

The leading tip of the active flow was 870 m (about half a mile) from the ocean.

According to this mornings USGS HVO Lava flow report the flow is now 0.4 miles from the emergency road:

The 61G lava flow, southeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō remains active on the coastal plain on Kīlauea’s south flank. HVO geologists visited the flow field on Friday. As of midday, the lava flow front was about 730 m (0.4 miles) from the coastal emergency road and 870 m (0.5 miles) from the ocean, an advance of only about 60 m (200 feet) since July 12. The leading tip of the flow was active on Friday and the area around the flow tip has widened. The most vigorous flow activity was nearer the base of the pali and extending out about 1.3 km (0.8 miles) from the base of the pali. See the most recent HVO thermal map and images of lava for additional information http

New Satellite and Thermal Images of Lava Flow Released

This satellite image was captured on Wednesday, July 13, by the Advanced Land Imager instrument onboard NASA’s Earth Observing 1 satellite. The image is provided courtesy of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Although this is a false-color image, the color map has been chosen to mimic what the human eye would expect to see. Bright red pixels depict areas of very high temperatures and show active lava. White areas are clouds.

The image shows that surface breakouts (red pixels) continue to be active on the pali and coastal plain. The flow front remains roughly 900 m (0.6 miles) from the ocean, with little advancement over the past several days.

The image shows that surface breakouts (red pixels) continue to be active on the pali and coastal plain. The flow front remains roughly 900 m (0.6 miles) from the ocean, with little advancement over the past several days.

This image shows a thermal map of the flow on the pali and coastal plain, created from airborne thermal images. White pixels are hot, and show areas of active surface breakouts. The background image is a satellite image collected before the current lava flow was active.

The thermal map shows several areas of active breakouts on the pali, in addition to several active areas on the coastal plain. The largest area of activity is on the coastal plain, closer to the base of the pali. The flow front had scattered surface activity but the leading tip of the flow had stalled.

The thermal map shows several areas of active breakouts on the pali, in addition to several active areas on the coastal plain. The largest area of activity is on the coastal plain, closer to the base of the pali. The flow front had scattered surface activity but the leading tip of the flow had stalled.

Lava Flow Front Activity Persists, But Advance Still Slow

Surface breakouts remained active on the pali and coastal plain, but the leading tip of the flow has advanced little since mapping on Sunday.

This morning, the flow front was about 940 m (0.6 miles) from the ocean. Activity upslope of the flow front was widening the flow margins. In this photo, the active flow is the lighter colored area.

This morning, the flow front was about 940 m (0.6 miles) from the ocean. Activity upslope of the flow front was widening the flow margins. In this photo, the active flow is the lighter colored area.

Above the pali there are no surface breakouts, and lava is carried downslope within the subsurface lava tube system. The trace of the lava tubes is evident by the line of fuming point sources along the flow.

hvo 713a

Puʻu ʻŌʻō, and the vent for the current flow, are in the upper left portion of the photo.

Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Adds New Live Webcam to View Lava Flow 61G

USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory has added a new live web camera so that folks can view the new Lava Flow “61G” from the comforts of your own home:

Click to view

Click to view

This image is from a research camera positioned on Holei Pali, looking east towards Lava Flow 61G and Kalapana.

Click here to view at anytime:  Lava Flow 61G and Kalapana

Disclaimer:
The webcams are operational 24/7 and faithfully record the dark of night if there are no sources of incandescence or other lights. Thermal webcams record heat rather than light and get better views through volcanic gas. At times, clouds and rain obscure visibility. The cameras are subject to sporadic breakdown, and may not be repaired immediately. Some cameras are observing an area that is off-limits to the general public because of significant volcanic hazards.

Lava Flow Front Activity Relatively Weak, But Still Active and Advancing

The flow front activity was relatively weak today, but still active and advancing.

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

The flow front at midday was about 1 km from the ocean (0.6 miles), having moved about 130 m (140 yards) since yesterday’s mapping.

An HVO geologist maps the flow margin using a handheld GPS unit.

An HVO geologist maps the flow margin using a handheld GPS unit.

One of the many breakouts upslope of the flow front.

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Lava Flow Widens at Base

This map shows recent changes to Kīlauea’s East Rift Zone lava flow field. The area of the active flow field as of June 30 is shown in pink, while widening and advancement of the active flow as mapped on July 8 is shown in red. Older Puʻu ʻŌʻō lava flows (1983–2016) are shown in gray.

The blue lines over the Puʻu ʻŌʻō flow field are steepest-descent paths calculated from a 2013 digital elevation model (DEM), while the blue lines on the rest of the map are steepest-descent paths calculated from a 1983 DEM (for calculation details, see http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1264/). Steepest-descent path analysis is based on the assumption that the DEM perfectly represents the earth's surface. DEMs, however, are not perfect, so the blue lines on this map can be used to infer only approximate flow paths. The base map is a partly transparent 1:24,000-scale USGS digital topographic map draped over the 1983 10-m digital elevation model (DEM).  (Click to enlarge)

The blue lines over the Puʻu ʻŌʻō flow field are steepest-descent paths calculated from a 2013 digital elevation model (DEM), while the blue lines on the rest of the map are steepest-descent paths calculated from a 1983 DEM (for calculation details, see http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1264/). Steepest-descent path analysis is based on the assumption that the DEM perfectly represents the earth’s surface. (Click to enlarge)

DEMs, however, are not perfect, so the blue lines on this map can be used to infer only approximate flow paths. The base map is a partly transparent 1:24,000-scale USGS digital topographic map draped over the 1983 10-m digital elevation model (DEM).

The leading edge of the flow, which was 1.1 km (0.7 miles) from the ocean today, is the light-colored area near the center of the image. (Click to enlarge)

The leading edge of the flow, which was 1.1 km (0.7 miles) from the ocean today, is the light-colored area near the center of the image. (Click to enlarge)

 

Lava Flow Front Slows Down on the Coastal Plain

After rapidly advancing across about half of the coastal plain, the flow front slowed considerably over the past day. The front moved only moved about 90 m (300 feet) since yesterday’s mapping, and activity at the leading tip of the flow was fairly weak today. The position of the lava flow front relative to the shoreline can be seen in this aerial photograph.

The leading edge of the flow, which was 1.1 km (0.7 miles) from the ocean today, is the light-colored area near the center of the image. (Click to enlarge)

The leading edge of the flow, which was 1.1 km (0.7 miles) from the ocean today, is the light-colored area near the center of the image. . Puʻu ʻŌʻō is visible on the upper left skyline. (Click to enlarge)

More vigorous breakouts were active upslope, near the base of the pali. Fume from the lava tubes and smoke from burning vegetation are visible on the pali in the upper part of the photo.

Channelized ʻaʻā lava flows were still active on the steep sections of the pali. Dark brown areas are recently active ʻaʻā, and the shiny gray areas are pāhoehoe lava. (Click to enlarge)

A deep hole remains open on the upper northeast flank of Puʻu ʻŌʻō, revealing a forked stream of swiftly moving lava (just visible in this photo).

 Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater is visible in the upper part of the photo. (Click to enlarge)

Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater is visible in the upper part of the photo. (Click to enlarge)

A wider view of the fume-filled crater at Puʻu ʻŌʻō.

The deep hole near the crater rim (see photo at left) is just left of center in this image. (Click to enlarge)

The deep hole near the crater rim (see photo at left) is just left of center in this image. (Click to enlarge)

HPP’s Loss is Pahoa’s Gain – $22.3 Million Dollar Pahoa Park “In a Nutshell”

Mahalo to Councilman Paleka’s Assistant Nadia Malloe for following up on my question as to why the Pahoa Park has inflated from $5 million dollars to $22.3 million dollars and she got this answer:

Pahoa Park ExpansionAfter inquiring with Hawaii County Parks and Recreation (P&R), the following was shared:

P&R designs 4 types of parks, listed by size/capacity:

  • NEIGHBORHOOD Park – typically designed to meet the needs of neighborhood, such as University Heights
  • COMMUNITY Park – typically designed for small neighborhood communities, such as Isaac Hale and Hawaiian Beaches
  • DISTRICT Park* – typically designed to meet the needs of an entire district population capable for islandwide attractions, such as Pāhoa Park
  • REGIONAL Park* – typically designed to meet the needs of a specific region, usually a larger scale in comparison to a district park, such as Old Ace Park in Kona
    *Swimming pools are only allowed in DISTRICT and REGIONAL Parks.

Approximately 10 years ago, it became very apparent that Puna is a rapidly growing community. Thus, in efforts to meet the recreational needs in this geographic area, the administration of P&R proposed building a 20-acre community park in Hawaiian Paradise Park, with an estimated cost of $5.5 million.

At the time this $5.5 million project was being proposed in 2010-2012, area residents were strongly in opposition of this project due to concerns relating to traffic, safety and privacy of area residents, fee simple ownership, etc. P&R did not want to impose this project where it was not wanted. Thus, P&R began to look at other solutions to our rapidly growing Puna community.

In Pāhoa, the geographical heart of Puna, a district park already existed with 56 acres of land not yet developed. Since County P&R already had an established district park, it would ease the process as no land acquisition nor eminent domain was necessary to move forward.

This district park expansion is the most expensive project in P&R history and its being granted to not just Puna, but the geographical heart and center of Puna. There will be multiple benefits such as reducing criminal activity, promoting healthy living, creating a safer community, potential revenue for Puna, area residents and vendors.

P&R can offer more programs, engaging families, elderly, and persons with disabilities as well. In fact, according to the Office of the Prosecuting Attorney, in the past 4 years, juvenile crime decreased approximately 52%, thanks to the hard work and dedication from our County Parks and Recreation Dept. The projected completion of this project is as soon as next month or early September.

In a nutshell, basically the proposed project went from a small community park in HPP to a large district park in Pāhoa. For a price comparison, the amount of money the State spent to build the ONE new gym at Pāhoa High School, can build FIVE of our County gyms.

Nan Inc. provided me with the following aerial footage of the park being built:

Tacos, Chips, Salsa…. and Madie Greene for County Council District 4

UPDATE: 

Aloha to All!!! With the incoming Tropical Storm expected to arrive soon, Aunty Madie has decided to reschedule her Fundraiser until the following Saturday. Sal Luquin has already reserved the date for Madie, 6pm, Saturday, July 30th at the Akebono. We apologize for any inconvenience.

Please be safe out there and be prepared.

Mahalo for your understanding…

Folks are invited to a tacos, chips and salsa fundraiser for County Council Candidate Madie Green on Saturday, July 23rd at the Akebono Theater in Pahoa.
Madie Green FundraiserA suggested donation of $15.00 will go to her campaign funds.

Lava Now 0.8 Miles From Ocean

The flow front remains active, and was more than half way across the coastal plain today (July 6). This afternoon, the flow front was roughly 2 km (1.2 miles) from the base of the pali, and 1.3 km (0.8 miles) from the ocean.

The front consisted of slow moving pāhoehoe.  (Click to enlarge)

The front consisted of slow moving pāhoehoe. (Click to enlarge)

Close-up view of a typical surface on pāhoehoe lava.

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

As this small channel of lava flows into a depression, its semi-congealed surface twists and wrinkles—forming the ropy surface commonly seen on pāhoehoe flows.

Flows on the pali are visible in the background.  (Click to enlarge)

Flows on the pali are visible in the background. (Click to enlarge)

The hardened crust of this pāhoehoe lava is pushed upward as the flow advances, exposing the incandescent lava beneath.

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge